Irish thatched cottage by Josephine M. Wallace about 1923
After shamrocks and harps, thatched cottages might just be one of the most iconic symbols of Ireland. And with less than 1,500 left on the whole island, these dwellings are more precious than ever.
As durable as they are environmentally friendly, Irish thatched cottages are the products of centuries of history and tradition. While they currently make up less than 0.1% of the total housing stock in Ireland, in the 1800s as much as half of the population slept under thatched roofs.
The materials used in construction varied across the years, from region to region, and depending upon the wealth of the family. For the walls, lime mortar was the most desirable – but also the most expensive – material. Mud tempered with strengthening agents such as straw, reeds or animal matter was a popular alternative.
For the iconic roofs, overlapping layers of sod were placed on the timbers. On top of this went the straw thatch, derived from a variety of materials such a wheat and flax, carefully cut and threaded by a thatcher in either the slice or sketch style. It would often take as many as 5,000 handfuls of straw to complete a roof.
The trade of thatching was passed down through the generations, from father to son. The work was fairly steady, since thatching must be replaced anywhere from every five to twenty years depending on the material and its condition.
Today, with the general decline in popularity of thatched cottages, thatching has become rare as a family trade, but a number of groups and individuals dedicated to the craft work throughout Ireland to restore existing cottages and build new ones.
As closely associated as thatching is with Ireland, it was also widely practiced in a range of other countries. Examples of thatched roofs can be found In Japan, Peru, Germany, Bali and Denmark, to name just a few.
Still, there’s nothing quite as picturesque or evocative as a quaint one-story thatched cottage nestled between stone walls and fields of green.